Biopharma Group Articles & Resources

August 17, 2022

Vapour Pressure of Ice

The driving force behind freeze drying is the pressure differential between the product chamber and the condenser: the greater the difference, the faster the flow of vapour away from the drying product. The condenser must be significantly colder than the product for effective freeze drying. The table below shows the pressures/temperatures at which ice will sublime directly into a gas.
August 17, 2022

Application note: Process Analytical Technology employed in the Freeze Drying Process to determine the End of Primary drying and Cycle Optimisation

Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) are analytical methods that can help to monitor a process in real time, enabling measurement of its effectiveness and assess how well the process achieves its end goal.