Biopharma Group Articles & Resources

August 17, 2022

Vapour Pressure of Ice

The driving force behind freeze drying is the pressure differential between the product chamber and the condenser: the greater the difference, the faster the flow of vapour away from the drying product. The condenser must be significantly colder than the product for effective freeze drying. The table below shows the pressures/temperatures at which ice will sublime directly into a gas.
August 17, 2022

Scientific Poster: Quantification of the Physical Robustness of Lyophilized Biotherapeutics

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